Just after the fourth game Tigran Petrosian went to the match committee and requested in writing that Victor Korchnoi be asked not to move his leg up and down beneath the table so much! It was just a Korchnoi nervous habit and did not seem to disturb anything really. No noise or offence intended probably. But Petrosian mentioned that Korchnoi had actually kicked him beneath the table while reaching out to make a move.
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After their divorce, Victor lived with his mother until , then with his father, paternal grandmother and later his adoptive mother Roza Abramovna Fridman who took responsibility for his upbringing when his father was killed during the siege of Leningrad in , and later lived with him in Switzerland. Model had earlier played a major role in the development of future World Champion Mikhail Botvinnik , while Zak, who later co-authored a book with Korchnoi, had also helped train future World Champion Boris Spassky.
He won 21 medals for the USSR. He excelled in difficult defensive positions. During the s he became more versatile, as he gained experience at the top level. His next opponent was GM Mikhail Tal , against whom Korchnoi had a large plus score in previous meetings. In , eight years after his defection, Korchnoi played board three in the second Rest of the World vs USSR match in London, with the match again held across ten boards. Korchnoi was the only player to play for each side in the series of two team matches.
These games were eventually published in Korchnoi next played Petrosian again, at Odessa. The two were not on friendly terms, and it was even rumored that the two resorted to kicking each other under the table during this match; however, Korchnoi denies this.
According to him, Petrosian just kicked his legs nervously and shook the table. Although the match was supposed to go to the first player to win four games, Petrosian resigned the match after just five games, with Korchnoi enjoying a lead of 3—1, with one draw. In the run-up to the match, Korchnoi was constantly subjected to threats and harassment[ citation needed ], and was virtually unable to find any Grandmasters to assist him.
Bronstein apparently assisted Korchnoi, for which he was punished. Bronstein, in his last book, Secret Notes, published in , wrote that he advised Korchnoi before the match began, but then had to leave to play an event himself; when he returned, Korchnoi was down by three games. Bronstein then assisted Korchnoi for the final stages.
By default, Karpov became the twelfth world champion in April , when Fischer refused to defend his title because of disputed match conditions. The central authorities prevented Korchnoi from playing any international tournaments outside the USSR.
Korchnoi was then allowed to play the Soviet Team Championship and an international tournament in Moscow later in Korchnoi then played the international tournament at Hastings, — Questions arose about how Karpov had qualified to be a World Champion, when he had never played Fischer. Since Korchnoi was not publicly visible, it was largely believed that he and Karpov could not be very strong.
Korchnoi was then allowed to play the Amsterdam tournament, as a means to prove Karpov was a worthy World Champion. The defection resulted in a turbulent period of excellent tournament results, losses in the two matches for the World Title, all overshadowed by the oppressive political climate of the Cold War. Korchnoi resided in the Netherlands for some time, giving simultaneous exhibitions. He played a short match against GM Jan Timman — the strongest active non-Soviet player at that time — and comprehensively defeated him.
He moved to West Germany for a short period, and then eventually settled in Switzerland by , becoming a Swiss citizen. The final, in which he faced Spassky at Belgrade , began with five wins and five draws for Korchnoi, after which he lost four consecutive games. There was enormous controversy off the board, ranging from X-raying of chairs, protests about the flags used on the board, hypnotism complaints and the mirror glasses used by Korchnoi. They later said this was intended as a parody of earlier protests, but it was taken seriously at the time.
The match would go to the first player to win six games, draws not counting. After 17 games, Karpov had an imposing 4—1 lead. Korchnoi won game 21, but Karpov won game 27, putting him on the brink of victory with a 5—2 lead. Korchnoi bravely fought back, scoring three wins and one draw in the next four games, to equalise the match at 5—5 after 31 games.
However, Karpov won the very next game, and the match, by 6—5 with 21 draws. Korchnoi commented: "Mr Keene betrayed me. He violated the contract. It was clear that while Mr Keene was writing one book and then another, Mr Stean was doing his work for him. Keene, she claimed, had signed this despite having already negotiated a contract with Batsford to write a book about the match. This victory earned him a rematch with Polugaevsky, whom he had defeated in the previous cycle.
This forfeit advanced Korchnoi to a rematch for the title against Karpov. This final match was also held in Merano , Italy. The headline of the tournament again largely centered on the political issues. His son had been promised release to join his father in exile if he gave up his passport. When he did so, he was promptly drafted into the Soviet army. After the release, he was again refused permission to leave the USSR. His wife also left the USSR, and the two divorced. Kasparov was not allowed to fly there to play the match.
This defaulted the match to Korchnoi. Ribli match. This was a gracious gesture by Korchnoi, since technically he had already won by default. After a good start, winning the first game, Korchnoi was beaten by a score of 7—4, with Kasparov, who was 32 years younger, proving that his all-round game and youthful stamina were too strong.
He frequently represented their Olympiad team on top board, beginning in , even though his Elo rating was sometimes considerably below that of compatriot Vadim Milov , who appeared not to make himself available for selection. From onwards, Korchnoi became a prolific author of books on his career, publishing five new volumes, including two books of annotated games, an updated autobiography, and an overview along with several other authors of Soviet politics applying to chess; he also wrote a book on rook endings.
The second-oldest player on the January list was Alexander Beliavsky , age 53, who was 22 years younger than Korchnoi. In the two played a four-game rapid play match 25 minutes per player for all moves, plus 30 seconds extra per move , which was drawn 2—2.
The combined ages of the players was
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