HEPLER STRAND 1990 PDF

There are two reasons for this. First, hospital pharmacy encompasses a much wider range of activities, such as manufacturing, quality control, supply, procurement, and systems management. Second, clinical pharmacy can also be practiced by community pharmacists. Hepler at that time was a hospital clinical pharmacist, based at the university. It has been suggested that pharmaceutical care describes the original purpose of clinical phar- macy, when it was understood as an approach to professional practice. It has also been separately described as a philosophy on which clinical pharmacy should be based, relating to the morality of the rela- tionship between pharmacist and patient 2 encompassing both clinical pharmacy and social pharmacy.

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The provision of pharmaceutical care in a community will bring in positive changes in health care delivery.

However, the pharmacist in developing countries has remained obscure in direct health- care of the patient. The main aim of this article is to reinforce the concept that there is a need to strengthen the basic pharmaceutical system in the Arab and African world before implementing any advanced clinical pharmacy or pharmaceutical care services to our communities.

This article gives a good insight of where pharmacy practice in Arab, African and other developing countries globally stand in comparison to developed nations. A trend is apparent towards increased emphasis on clinical pharmacy practice. Country-specific pharmacy education and practice are discussed, analyzing the progress and opportunities available to pharmacy graduates. In addition, the future of pharmacy practice and clinical roles of hospital and community pharmacists were reviewed.

It was realized that pharmacy practice and progress in many of the Arab and African countries were a mirror image of the status of the country itself. A new vision for the future of pharmacy practice needs to be considered and reorientation of pharmacy services in the existing system is needed.

There should be a professional approach to speed up the rise towards practicing clinical pharmacy and pharmaceutical profession.

This is achieved by interviewing patients, documenting their health details and educating them on methods of improving their health, including proper medication usage and lifestyle modification.

Furthermore, colleges of pharmacy need to revise and update their curricula to accommodate the progressively increasing development in the pharmaceutical education and the evolving new roles of practicing pharmacists in their community.

LEI 5553 ATUALIZADA PDF

Opportunities and responsibilities in pharmaceutical care.

The provision of pharmaceutical care in a community will bring in positive changes in health care delivery. However, the pharmacist in developing countries has remained obscure in direct health- care of the patient. The main aim of this article is to reinforce the concept that there is a need to strengthen the basic pharmaceutical system in the Arab and African world before implementing any advanced clinical pharmacy or pharmaceutical care services to our communities. This article gives a good insight of where pharmacy practice in Arab, African and other developing countries globally stand in comparison to developed nations. A trend is apparent towards increased emphasis on clinical pharmacy practice. Country-specific pharmacy education and practice are discussed, analyzing the progress and opportunities available to pharmacy graduates.

FAGLES OEDIPUS PDF

Pharmaceutical care

Am J Hosp Pharm. Opportunities and responsibilities in pharmaceutical care. Pharmacy has shed the apothecary role but has not yet been restored to its erst-while importance in medical care. It is not enough to dispense the correct drug or to provide sophisticated pharmaceutical services; nor will it be sufficient to devise new technical functions. Pharmacists and their institutions must stop looking inward and start redirecting their energies to the greater social good. Some 12, deaths and 15, hospitalizations due to adverse drug reactions ADRs were reported to the FDA in , and many went unreported. Drug-related morbidity and mortality are often preventable, and pharmaceutical services can reduce the number of ADRs, the length of hospital stays, and the cost of care.

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