Book Cheremisinoff, N P This two-volume series, the work of more than contributors, presents advanced topics in industrial heat and mass transfer operations and reactor design technology. Volume 1 emphasizes heat transfer operations. The contents are: Fundamentsls of momentum and heat transfer. Scaling in laminar and turbulent heat and mass transfer. Heat flux in the Benar-Rayleigh problem. Hydrodynamics of free liquid jets and their influence on heat transfer.
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Book Cheremisinoff, N P This two-volume series, the work of more than contributors, presents advanced topics in industrial heat and mass transfer operations and reactor design technology. Volume 1 emphasizes heat transfer operations. The contents are: Fundamentsls of momentum and heat transfer.
Scaling in laminar and turbulent heat and mass transfer. Heat flux in the Benar-Rayleigh problem. Hydrodynamics of free liquid jets and their influence on heat transfer. Natural convection heat transfer to power law fluids. Natural convection in evaporating droplets. Principles of heat and mass transfer with liquid evaporation.
Bubble nucleation, growth, and departure in boiling heat transfer. Transient boiling heat transfer under forced convection. Prediction of heat transfer during forced convection subcooled boiling. Liquid metal heat transfer in turbulent pipe flows. Mixed convection in buoyant plumes. Nucleation and growth in the diffusion cloud chamber. Convective and radiative heat transfer of flowing gaseous-solid suspensions.
Heat transfer in gas-solid fluidized beds. Gas convection and unsteady conduction in fluid bed heat transfer. Heat transfer between tubes and gas-solid fluid beds. Periodic heat transfer through inhomogeneous layers. Volume 2 emphasizes mass transfer and reactor design. Mass transfer principles with homogeneous and heterogeneous reactions. Convective diffusion with reactions in a tube. Transient mass transfer onto small particles and drops.
Modeling heat and mass transport in falling liquid films. Heat and mass transfer in film absorption. Multicomponent mass transfer: theory and applications. Kinetics and mechanisms of catalytic deactivation. Mixture boiling. Estimating vapor pressure from normal boiling points of hydrocarbons.
Estimating liquid and vapor molar fractions in distillation columns. Principles of multicomponent distillation. Generalized design methods for multicomponent distillation. Interfacial films in inorganic substances extraction. Liquid-liquid extraction in suspended slugs. Mass transfer and kinetics in three-phase reactors. Estimating liquid film mass transfer coefficients in randomly packed columns. Designing packed tower wet scrubbers - emphasis on nitrogen oxides.
Gas absorption in aerated mixers. Axial dispersion and heat transfer in gas-liquid bubble columns. Operation and design of trickle-bed reactors. Among the applications discussed are: mass transfer cooling; heat exchangers; and heat pipes. Consideration is also given to: heat transfer in nonNewtonian fluids; fluidized and packed beds; thermal energy storage; and heat transfer in solar collectors.
Additional topics include: heat transfer in buildings; cooling towers and ponds; and geothermal heat transfer. Further investigation is thus needed to quantify the scaling distortion for safety analysis code validation.
A total of 13 containment condensation tests were conducted for pressure ranging from 4 to 21 bar with three different static inventories of non-condensable gas. Condensation and heat transfer rates were evaluated employing several methods, notably from measured temperature gradients in the HTP as well as measured condensate formation rates.
A detailed mass and energy accounting was used to assess the various measurement methods and to support simplifying assumptions required for the analysis. Condensation heat fluxes and heat transfer coefficients are calculated and presented as a function of pressure to satisfy the objectives of this investigation.
The major conclusions for those tests are summarized below: 1 In the steam blow-down tests, the initial condensation heat transfer process involves the heating-up of the containment heat transfer plate. An inverse heat conduction model was developed to capture the rapid transient transfer characteristics, and the analysis method is applicable to SMR safety analysis.
The data revealed the detailed heat transfer characteristics of the model containment, important to the SMR safety analysis and the validation of associated evaluation model. However this approach, unlike separate effect tests, cannot isolate the condensation heat transfer coefficient over the containment wall, and therefore is not suitable for the assessment of the condensation heat transfer coefficient against system pressure and noncondensable gas mass fraction.
The investigation also indicates an increase in the condensation heat transfer coefficient at high containment pressure conditions, but the uncertainties invoked with this method appear to be substantial. It does affect the bottom measurements near the water level position.
The results suggest that the heavier non-condensable gas is accumulated in the lower portion of the containment due to stratification in the narrow containment space. The overall effects of the non-condensable gas on the heat transfer process should thus be negligible for tall containments of narrow condensation spaces in most SMR designs.
Therefore, the previous correlations with noncondensable gas effects are not appropriate to those small SMR containments due to the very poor mixing of steam and non-condensable gas. Also, it is believed that due to complex test geometry, measured temperature gradients across the heat transfer plate may have been underestimated and thus the heat flux had been underestimated.
The MELCOR model predicts a film thickness on the order of microns, which agrees very well with film flow model developed in this study for scaling analysis. However, the expected differences in film thicknesses for near vacuum and near atmospheric test conditions are not significant. Further study on the behavior of condensate film is expected to refine the simulation results. Possible refinements include but are not limited to, the followings: CFD simulation focusing on the liquid film behavior and benchmarking with experimental analyses for simpler geometries.
The experimental results are employed to validate the containment condensation model in reactor containment system safety analysis code for integral SMRs. Such a containment condensation model is important to demonstrate the adequate cooling. In the three years of investigation, following the original proposal, the following planned tasks have been completed: 1 Performed a scaling study for the full pressure test facility applicable to the reference design for the condensation heat transfer process during design basis accidents DBAs , modified the existing test facility to route the steady-state secondary steam flow into the high pressure containment for controllable condensation tests, and extended the operations at negative gage pressure conditions OrSU.
Minor modifications to the model containment have been made to control the non-condensable gas fraction and to utilize the secondary loop stable steam flow for condensation testing. UW-Madison has developed a containment condensation model, which leveraged previous validated containment heat transfer work carried out at UW-Madison, and extended the range of applicability of the model to integral SMR designs that utilize containment vessels of high heat transfer efficiencies.
In this final report, the research background and literature survey are presented in Chapter 2 and 3, respectively. The test facility description and modifications are summarized in Chapter 4, and the scaling analysis is introduced in Chapter 5.
The tests description, procedures, and data analysis are presented in Chapter 6, while the numerical modeling is presented in Chapter 7, followed by a conclusion section in Chapter 8.
Handbook Of Heat Transfer By Rohsenow, Hartnett & Cho
In Memoriam: Professor Warren M. Rohsenow Professor Warren Max Rohsenow passed away on June 3, , not long after celebrating his 90th birthday, at his home in Falmouth, Maine. Attending various schools, he became an accomplished musician - particularly drums and piano - participating in many dance bands and orchestras. While he was heavily involved with accelerated academics, music, clubs, and sports, he still found time to earn his Eagle Scout badge before he graduated from high school at age Attending Northwestern University, he received the B. Of course, he continued to make music with the orchestra and marching band, filling in with anything that was needed, as well as many professional gigs.
Nucleate Boiling Correlations – Rohsenow Correlation
Handbook of Heat Transfer