History[ edit ] Ghostscript was originally written  by L. Later, Deutsch formed Aladdin Enterprises to dual-license Ghostscript also under a proprietary license with an own development fork : "Aladdin Ghostscript" under the Aladdin Free Public License  which, despite the name, is not a free software license, as it forbids commercial distribution and "GNU Ghostscript" distributed with the GNU General Public License. According to Artifex, as of version 9. Ghostscript is the current commercial proprietary version licensed by Artifex Software for inclusion in closed-source products. Combined with the base set, they represent a little more than half of the standard PostScript 3 font complement. A miscellaneous set including Cyrillic, kana, and fonts derived from the free Hershey fonts, with improvements by Thomas Wolff such as adding accented characters.
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Also, since some devices write output files when opened, there may be an extra blank page written pdfwrite, ps2write, eps2write, pxlmono, pxlcolor, As noted above, when using MS Windows console command. This is intended to be a quick way to invoke ghostscript to convert one or more input files. For instance, to convert somefile.
Individual documents can and often do specify a paper size, which takes precedence over the default size. The default set of paper sizes will be included in the currentpagedevice in the InputAttributes dictionary with each paper size as one of the entries. The last entry in the dictionary which has numeric keys is a non-standard Ghostscript extension type of PageSize where the array has four elements rather than the standard two elements.
This four element array represents a page size range where the first two elements are the lower bound of the range and the second two are the upper bound.
By default these are [0, 0] for the lower bound and [16 fffff, 16 fffff] for the upper bound. For actual printers, either the entire InputAttributes dictionary should be replaced or the range type entry should not be included. Using this option will result in automatic rotation of the document page if the requested page size matches one of the default page sizes.
This allows the -dPSFitPage option to fit the page size requested in a PostScript file to be rotated, scaled and centered for the best fit on the specified page. See the section on finding files for details. Sometimes the initialization files are compiled into Ghostscript and cannot be changed.
On Windows and some Linux builds, the default paper size will be selected to be a4 or letter depending on the locale. Interacting with pipes As noted above, input files are normally specified on the command line.
On Unix and MS Windows systems you can send output to a pipe in the same way. All the normal switches and procedures for interpreting PostScript files also apply to PDF files, with a few exceptions. This is useful for creating fixed size images of PDF files that may have a variety of page sizes, for example thumbnail images. This option is also set by the -dFitPage option. This may include any extra bleed area needed to accommodate the physical limitations of cutting, folding, and trimming equipment.
The actual printed page may include printing marks that fall outside the bleed box. The trim box defines the intended dimensions of the finished page after trimming. Some files have a TrimBox that is smaller than the MediaBox and may include white space, registration or cutting marks outside the CropBox. Using this option simulates appearance of the finished printed page. The art box is likely to be the smallest box. It can be useful when one wants to crop the page as much as possible without losing the content.
Unlike the other "page boundary" boxes, CropBox does not have a defined meaning, it simply provides a rectangle to which the page contents will be clipped cropped. By convention, it is often, but not exclusively, used to aid the positioning of content on the usually larger, in these cases media. Annotations are shown by default. Annotation types listed in this array will be drawn, whilst those not listed will not be drawn. This may be useful for backward compatibility with old versions of Ghostscript and Adobe Acrobat, or for processing files with large values of UserUnit that otherwise exceed implementation limits.
On TrueType fonts, this is often a hollow sqaure. Ghostscript now attempts to mimic this undocumented feature using a user parameter RenderTTNotdef.
Pages of all documents in PDF collections are numbered sequentionally. A list can include single pages or ranges of pages. The list of pages should be given in increasing order, you cannot process pages out of order and inserting higher numbered pages before lower numbered pages in the list will generate an error. The PDF interpreter and the other language interpreters handle these in slightly different ways.
Because PDF files enable random access to pages in the document the PDF inerpreter only interprets and renders the required pages. PCL and PostScript cannot be handled in ths way, and so all the pages must be interpreted.
However only the requested pages are rendered, which can still lead to savings in time. Because the PostScript and PCL interpreters cannot determine when a document terminates, sending multple files as input on the command line does not reset the PageList between each document, each page in the second and subsequent documents is treated as following on directly from the last page in the first document.
The PDF interpreter, however, does not work this way. The PostScript interpreter, by contrast, would only render pages 1 and 2 from the first file. This means you must exercise caution when using this switch, and probably should not use it at all when processing a mixture of PostScript and PDF files on the same command line. In many cases, this is because of incorrectly generated PDF.
Acrobat tends to be very forgiving of invalid PDF files. Ghostscript tends to expect files to conform to the standard. This policy has, no doubt, encouraged PDF generators to be more careful.
However, we now recognize that this behavior is not very friendly for people who just want to use Ghostscript to view or print PDF files. For the official description of the EPS file format, please refer to the Adobe documentation in their tech note Devices that produce gray or RGB output have an additive process color model. Devices which produce CMYK output have a subtractive process color model.
Devices may, or may not, have support for spot colors. Note: The differences in appearance of files with overprinting and spot colors caused by the differences in the color model of the output device are part of the PostScript and PDF specifications. They are not due to a limitation in the implementation of Ghostscript or its output devices. With devices which use a subtractive process color model, both PostScript and PDF allow the drawing of objects using colorants inks for one or more planes without affecting the data for the remaining colorants.
Thus the inks for one object may overprint the inks for another object. In some cases this produces a transparency like effect. The effects of overprinting should not be confused with the PDF 1. Overprinting is not allowed for devices with an additive process color model. With files that use overprinting, the appearance of the resulting image can differ between devices which produce RGB output versus devices which produce CMYK output.
Ghostscript automatically overprints if needed when the output device uses a subtractive process color model. For example, if the file is using overprinting, differences can be seen in the appearance of the output from the tiff24nc and tiff32nc devices which use an RGB and a CMYK process color models.
Most of the Ghostscript output devices do not have file formats which support spot colors. Instead spot colors are converted using the tint transform function contained within the color space definition..
However there are several devices which have support for spot colors. This allows Photoshop to simulate the appearance of the spot colors. The display device, when using its CMYK plus spot color separation mode, also uses an equivalent CMYK color to simulate the appearance of the spot color. The tiffsep device creates output files for each separation CMYK and any spot colors present.
The xcfcmyk device creates output files with spot colors placed in separate alpha channels. The XCF file format does not currently directly support spot colors. Overprinting with spot colors is not allowed if the tint transform function is being used to convert spot colors. Thus if spot colors are used with overprinting, then the appearance of the result can differ between output devices. This feature is not available in the free Acrobat Reader. The free Acrobat Reader also uses the tint transform functions to convert spot colors to the appropriate alternate color space.
Testing a file name for an absolute path System.
Merge PDF files
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