FLEXIBILITY TRAINING BALLISTIC STATIC OR PROPRIOCEPTIVE NEUROMUSCULAR FACILITATION PDF

Physiology[ edit ] Studies have shed light on the function, in stretching, of a large protein within the myofibrils of skeletal muscles named titin. Stretches can also be active or passive, where active stretches use internal forces generated by the body to perform a stretch and passive stretches involve forces from external objects or people to facilitate the stretch. Stretches can involve both passive and active components. Assisted stretching may be performed when the athlete is unable to stretch optimally independently. For example, during cramping of the hamstrings, assistance in stretching out the muscles may help. Dynamic stretching[ edit ] Dynamic stretching is a movement based stretch aimed on increasing blood flow throughout the body while also loosening up the muscle fibers.

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Physiology[ edit ] Studies have shed light on the function, in stretching, of a large protein within the myofibrils of skeletal muscles named titin. Stretches can also be active or passive, where active stretches use internal forces generated by the body to perform a stretch and passive stretches involve forces from external objects or people to facilitate the stretch. Stretches can involve both passive and active components.

Assisted stretching may be performed when the athlete is unable to stretch optimally independently. For example, during cramping of the hamstrings, assistance in stretching out the muscles may help. Dynamic stretching[ edit ] Dynamic stretching is a movement based stretch aimed on increasing blood flow throughout the body while also loosening up the muscle fibers.

Standard dynamic stretches typically involve slow and controlled active contraction of muscles. An example of such a dynamic stretch are lunges. Another form of dynamic stretching is ballistic stretching, which is an active stretch that involves bouncing or swinging back and forth at a high speed in order to take a muscle beyond its typical range of motion using momentum.

Ballistic stretching may cause damage to the joints. There are more advanced forms of static stretching, such as proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation PNF , which involves both active muscle contractions and passive external forces.

Although many people engage in stretching before or after exercise, the medical evidence has shown this has no meaningful benefit in preventing specifically muscle soreness. It may reduce the lactic acid build up in the muscles, making your next workout more bearable. Static stretching is better at creating a more intense stretch because it is able to isolate a muscle group better. This type of stretching has been shown to have negative results on athletic performance within the categories of power and speed.

For example "The calf muscles are one of the muscle groups that have the most need for adequate flexibility since they are deeply related to normal lower limb function.

When the goal is to increase flexibility, the most commonly used technique is stretching". Chronic static stretching was shown to increase range of motion of Dorsiflexion or bringing ones foot closer to their shin by an average of 5. This type of stretching has shown better results on athletic performances of power and speed, when compared to static stretching.

In this experiment, football players were put through different stretching durations of static and dynamic stretching to test their effects. They were tested on maximum sprinting ability and overall change in flexibility. Both static and dynamic stretching had a positive impact on flexibility but, whereas dynamic stretching had no impact on sprint times, static stretching had a negative result, worsening the time the participants were able to sprint the distance in.

While the duration of stretching for dynamic had no impact on the overall results, the longer the stretch was held for static, the worse the results got, showing that the longer the duration of stretching held, the weaker the muscle became.

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CURRENT CONCEPTS IN MUSCLE STRETCHING FOR EXERCISE AND REHABILITATION

This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. The two treatment groups participated in a static active stretching programme three times a week for a five week period, holding each stretch for a duration of either five or 15 seconds. The total amount of time spent in a stretched position was controlled. The five second group performed each stretch nine times and the 15 second group three times resulting in a total stretching time of 45 seconds for both groups for each exercise. The control group did not stretch. Active and passive ROM were determined during left hip flexion, left knee flexion, and left knee extension before and after the training programme using an inclinometer. However, sustaining a stretch may not significantly affect the improvements gained in passive ROM.

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Effect of stretching duration on active and passive range of motion in the lower extremity

Int J Sports Phys Ther. Abstract Stretching is a common activity used by athletes, older adults, rehabilitation patients, and anyone participating in a fitness program. While the benefits of stretching are known, controversy remains about the best type of stretching for a particular goal or outcome. The purpose of this clinical commentary is to discuss the current concepts of muscle stretching interventions and summarize the evidence related to stretching as used in both exercise and rehabilitation.

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