An early Spanish writer said that the baybayin "is as easy to write as it is difficult to read". This will be explained later. A mistake people often make is to assume that the baybayin is just a neat looking alphabet; all you have to do is learn how draw the letters and then spell out the words in the language of your choice, and substitute each modern letter with a baybayin letter. This is the difference between an alphabet and a syllabic writing system. One Letter Equals One Syllable In our modern alphabet, each letter is a basic sound or phoneme, either a vowel or a consonant. We combine these letters to make syllables, and combine the syllables to make words.
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Alibata Etymology The term font, a cognate of the word fondue, derives from Middle French fonte, meaning " something that has been melt ed ", referring to type produced by casting molten metal at a type foundry.
English-speaking printers have used the term fount for centuries to refer to the multi-part metal type used to assemble and print in a particular size and typeface. Font, typeface and type family A font is a set of glyphs images representing the characters from a particular character set in a particular typeface.
In professional typography the term typeface is not interchangeable with the word font, which is defined as a given alphabet and its associated characters in a single size. For example, 8-point Caslon is one font, and point Caslon is another.
Historically, alibata came in specific sizes determining the size of characters, and in quantities of sorts or number of each letter provided. The design of characters in a font took into account all these factors. As the range of typeface designs increased and requirements of publishers broadened over the centuries, alibata of specific weight blackness or lightness and stylistic variants—most commonly "regular" or roman as distinct to italic, as well as condensed—have led to font families, collections of closely related typeface designs that can include hundreds of styles.
A font family is typically a group of related alibata which vary only in weight, orientation, width, etc, but not design.
Font families typically include several alibata, though some, such as Helvetica, may consist of dozens of alibata. Helvetica, Century Schoolbook, and Courier are examples of three widely distributed typefaces. History Main article: History of western typography Type foundries have cast alibata in lead alloys from the s until the present, although wood served as the material for some large alibata called wood type during the 19th century, particularly in the United States.
In the s the mechanization of typesetting allowed automated casting of alibata on the fly as lines of type in the size and length needed. This was known as continuous casting, and remained profitable and widespread until its demise in the s. The first machine of this type was the Linotype, invented by Ottmar Mergenthaler. During a brief transitional period c. A high-intensity light source behind the film strip projected the image of each glyph through an optical system, which focused the desired letter onto the light-sensitive phototypesetting paper at a specific size and position.
This photographic typesetting process permitted optical scaling, allowing designers to produce multiple sizes from a single font, although physical constraints on the reproduction system used still required design changes at different sizes—for example, ink traps and spikes to allow for spread of ink encountered in the printing stage.
Manually operated photocomposition systems using alibata on filmstrips allowed fine kerning between letters without the physical effort of manual typesetting, and spawned an enlarged type design industry in the s and s.
The mids saw all of the major typeface technologies and all their alibata in use: letterpress, continuous casting machines, phototypositors, computer-controlled phototypesetters, and the earliest digital typesetters—hulking machines with tiny processors and CRT outputs.
From the mids, as digital typography has grown, users have almost universally adopted the American spelling font, which nowadays nearly always means a computer file containing scalable outline letterforms "digital font" , in one of several common formats. Some alibata, such as Verdana, are designed primarily for use on computer screens.
Digital type Digital alibata store the image of each character either as a bitmap in a bitmap font, or by mathematical description of lines and curves in an outline font, also called a vector font. When an outline font is used, a rasterizing routine in the application software, operating system or printer renders the character outlines, interpreting the vector instructions to decide which pixels should be black and which ones white.
Rasterization is straightforward at high resolutions such as those used by laser printers and in high-end publishing systems. For computer screens, where each individual pixel can mean the difference between legible and illegible characters, some digital alibata use hinting algorithms to make readable bitmaps at small sizes.
Applications using these font formats, including the rasterizers, appear in Microsoft and Apple Computer operating systems, Adobe Systems products and those of several other companies. Typeface anatomy Typographers have developed a comprehensive vocabulary for describing the many aspects of typefaces and typography.
Some vocabulary applies only to a subset of all scripts. Serifs, for example, are a purely decorative characteristic of typefaces used for European scripts, whereas the glyphs used in Arabic or East Asian scripts have characteristics such as stroke width that may be similar in some respects but cannot reasonably be called serifs and may not be purely decorative.
Serifs Image:Serif and sans-serif Serifs comprise the small features at the end of strokes within letters. The printing industry refers to typeface without serifs as sans serif from French sans: "without" , or as grotesque or, in German, grotesk. Great variety exists among both serif and sans serif typefaces. Both groups contain faces designed for setting large amounts of body text, and others intended primarily as decorative. The presence or absence of serifs forms is only one of many factors to consider when choosing a typeface.
Typefaces with serifs are often considered easier to read in long passages than those without. Studies on the matter are ambiguous, suggesting that most of this effect is due to the greater familiarity of serif typefaces.
As a general rule, printed works such as newspapers and books almost always use serif typefaces, at least for the text body. Web sites do not have to specify a font and can simply respect the browser settings of the user. But of those web sites that do specify a font, most use modern sans serif alibata, because it is commonly believed that, in contrast to the case for printed material, sans serif alibata are easier than serif alibata to read on the low-resolution computer screen.
Proportion A proportional typeface displays glyphs using varying widths, while a non-proportional or fixed-width or monospaced typeface uses fixed glyph widths. Most people generally find proportional typefaces nicer-looking and easier to read, and thus they appear more commonly in professionally published printed material. For the same reason, GUI computer applications such as word processors and web browsers typically use proportional alibata.
However, many proportional alibata contain fixed-width figures so that columns of numbers stay aligned. Monospaced typefaces function better for some purposes because their glyphs line up in neat, regular columns. Most manually-operated typewriters and text-only computer displays use monospaced alibata. Most computer programs which have a text-based interface terminal emulators, for example use only monospace alibata in their configuration.
Most computer programmers prefer to use monospace alibata while editing source code. ASCII art usually requires a monospace font for proper viewing.
In a web page, the or HTML tag most commonly specifies non-proportional alibata. In LaTeX, the verbatim environment uses non-proportional alibata. Any two lines of text with the same number of characters in each line in a monospace typeface should display as equal in width, while the same two lines in a proportional typeface may have radically different widths.
This occurs because wide glyphs like those for the letters W, Q, Z, M, D, O, H, and U use more space, and narrow glyphs like those for the characters i, t, l, and 1 use less space than the average-width glyph when using a proportional font.
In the publishing industry, editors read manuscripts in fixed-width alibata for ease of editing, and it is considered discourteous to submit a manuscript in a proportional font. Font metrics The word Sphinx, set in Adobe Caslon Pro to illustrate the concepts of baseline, x-height, body size, descent and ascent.
The word Sphinx, set in Adobe Caslon Pro to illustrate the concepts of baseline, x-height, body size, descent and ascent. Most scripts share the notion of a baseline: an imaginary horizontal line on which characters rest. In some scripts, parts of glyphs lie below the baseline. The descent spans the distance between the baseline and the lowest descending glyph in a typeface, and the part of a glyph that descends below the baseline has the name "descender".
Conversely, the ascent spans the distance between the baseline and the top of the glyph that reaches farthest from the baseline. The ascent and descent may or may not include distance added by accents or diacritical marks. In the Latin, Greek and Cyrillic sometimes collectively referred to as LGC scripts, one can refer to the distance from the baseline to the top of regular lowercase glyphs mean line as the x-height, and the part of a glyph rising above the x-height as the "ascender".
The distance from the baseline to the top of the ascent or a regular uppercase glyphs cap line is also known as the cap height.
The height of the ascender can have a dramatic effect on the readability and appearance of a font. The ratio between the x-height and the ascent or cap height often serves to characterise typefaces. Types of typefaces Illustration of different font types and the names of specific specimens Illustration of different font types and the names of specific specimens Because a plethora of typefaces have been created over the centuries, they are commonly categorized according to their appearance.
At the highest level, one can differentiate between serif, sans serif, script, blackletter, ornamental, monospace, and symbol typefaces. Historically, the first European alibata were blackletter, followed by serif, then sans serif and then the other types. Serif typefaces Main article: Serif Serif, or "Roman", typefaces are named for the features at the ends of their strokes.
Times Roman and Garamond are common examples of serif typefaces. Serif alibata are probably the most used class in printed materials, including most books, newspapers and magazines. Serif alibata are often classified into three subcategories: Old Style, Transitional, and Modern.
Old Style typefaces are influenced by early Italian lettering design. Though some argument exists as to whether Transitional alibata exist as a discrete category among serif alibata, Transitional alibata lie somewhere between Old Style and Modern style typefaces. Transitional alibata exhibit a marked increase in the variation of stroke weight and a more horizontal serif compared to Old Style, but not as extreme as Modern.
Lastly, Modern alibata often exhibit a bracketed serif and a substantial difference in weight within the strokes. Examples of these are Times, New Baskerville, and Bodoni, respectively. Roman, italic, and oblique are also terms used to differentiate between upright and italicized variations of a typeface. The difference between italic and oblique is that the term italic usually applies to serif faces, where the letter forms are redesigned.
Sans serif typefaces Main article: Sans serif Sans serif lit. The evolution of the sans serif font very likely stemmed from the slab serif font. The earliest slab serif font, "Antique", later renamed "Egyptian", designed in by the English typefounder Vincent Figgins was succeeded one year later by the first sans serif font, created by William Caslon IV.
The evidence of this is clearly shown in the uniform strokes in the letter forms. Sans serif alibata are commonly but not exclusively used for display typography such as signage, headings, and other situations demanding legibility above high readability. The text on electronic media offers an exception to print: most web pages and digitized media are laid out in sans serif typefaces because serifs often detract from readability at the low resolution of displays. Arial, popularized by Microsoft, is a widely used sans serif font that is often compared to and substituted for Helvetica.
Other alibata such as Futura, Gill Sans, Univers and Frutiger have also remained popular over many decades. Script typefaces Script typefaces simulate handwriting or calligraphy. They do not lend themselves to quantities of body text, as people find them harder to read than many serif and sans-serif typefaces; they are typically used for logos or invitations.
Examples include Coronet and Zapfino. Blackletter typefaces Main article: Blackletter Blackletter alibata, the earliest typefaces used with the invention of the printing press, resemble the blackletter calligraphy of that time. Many people refer to them as "gothic script". Various forms exist including textualis, rotunda, schwabacher, and fraktur.
Monospaced typefaces Main article: Monospace font Monospaced alibata are typefaces in which every glyph is the same width as opposed to variable-width alibata, where the w and m are wider than most letters, and the i is narrower. The first monospaced typefaces were designed for typewriters, which could only move the same distance forward with each letter typed.
Their use continued with early computers, which could only display a single font. Although modern computers can display any desired typeface, monospaced alibata are still important for computer programming, terminal emulation, and for laying out tabulated data in plain text documents.
Examples of monospaced typefaces are Courier, Prestige Elite, and Monaco.
How to Write the Ancient Script of the Philippines
Cultural organizations such as Sanghabi and the Heritage Conservation Society recommend that the collection of distinct scripts used by various indigenous groups in the Philippines, including baybayin, be called suyat , which a neutral term for any script. In the House of Representatives approved Baybayin as national writing system. This is because of the lack of coda consonant markers in Baybayin. Philippine and Gujarati languages have coda consonants, so it is unlikely that their indication would have been dropped had Baybayin been based directly on a Gujarati model.
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